What is Cryptography? Types and Examples You Need to Know

With the advancement of modern data security, we can now change our data such that only the intended recipient can understand it. One important aspect of the encryption process is that it almost always involves both an algorithm and a key. A key is just another piece of information, almost always a number, that specifies how the algorithm is applied to the plaintext in order to encrypt it.

Cryptography allows for the secure transmission of digital data between willing parties. It is used to safeguard company secrets, secure classified information, and sensitive information from fraudulent activity, among other things. There is a wide range of hash functions with different specialized purposes. IBM led the way in the late 1960s with an encryption method known as “Lucifer”, which was eventually codified by the US National Bureau of Standards as the first Data Encryption Standard (DES). As the internet began to grow in importance, more and better encryption was needed, and today a significant portion of data flying around the world is encrypted using varying techniques that we’ll discuss in more detail in a moment. In addition, cryptography includes techniques such as microdots and
merging to obfuscate information in photographs.


Cryptography is the heart of security and privacy mechanisms worldwide. It transforms plain-text data into ciphertext in an unreadable format using encryption algorithms. As technology advances, we’ll see growth in more kinds of cryptography. And then — consider what quantum computing might mean for encryption.

What is cryptography in simple words

However, it’s asymmetric cryptography that usually deals with these processes. Cryptography can be traced all the way back to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics but remains vital to securing communication and information in transit and preventing it from being read https://www.xcritical.com/blog/what-is-cryptography-and-how-does-it-work/ by untrusted parties. It uses algorithms and mathematical concepts to transform messages into difficult-to-decipher codes through techniques like cryptographic keys and digital signing to protect data privacy, credit card transactions, email, and web browsing.

Why is cryptography important?

It’s vital to keep in mind that a generated cryptographic key should only be used once and for one decryption purpose. Furthermore, a generated key used incorrectly or encoded improperly is a liability. If one encryption key is overused, meaning that it encrypts too much data, it becomes vulnerable and prone to cracking. This is especially the case when older, symmetric cryptography algorithms are used. Ideally, keys should be renewed and updated at previously set and appropriate intervals.

Cryptography has become especially important for its ramifications in the world of cybersecurity. It helps to ensure privacy and confidentiality, protect the integrity of data, offer a method of authentication, and allows for non-repudiation. As such,
cryptography is critical to ensuring https://www.xcritical.com/ the confidentiality of all our digital communications and transactions, whether that is sending an email or Whatsapp message, setting up login
credentials, or executing banking transactions. The science of coding and decoding messages so as to keep these messages secure.

What Are Cryptographic Key Attacks? What Are the Types?

One example of symmetric-key cryptography is the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). AES is a specification established in November 2001 by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS 197) to protect sensitive information. The standard is mandated by the U.S. government and widely used in the private sector. Hybrid encryption combines public-key cryptography with symmetric encryption for data encryption. This cryptographic type generates a private key and encrypts it using the public key. Then the complete message with the encrypted private key will be encrypted with the original symmetric key.

  • It can aid in the security of the connection between Samuel and Yary.
  • They are also necessary to ensure safe web browsing and secure and confidential communication via email and banking systems.
  • This rule came to be known as the key to decipher hidden codes or messages.
  • Though there is a mathematical connection between these private key and public key pairs, the public key cannot generate the private key.
  • Secure cryptographic systems involve an algorithm and a key that is nearly always a number.
  • Caesar and his centurion would presumably have to discuss the key when they saw each other in person, though obviously this is less than ideal when wars are being fought over long distances.
  • Samuel first converts a readable message or Plain text into a series of digits using various cryptographic algorithms to protect the message.

Cryptocurrencies are also highly volatile, so it is recommended to start small and diversify your investments. As a beginner, it helps if you initially rely on expert advice and gradually grow your own expertise by researching the subject. For this type of research to be successful, it is also important to develop an understanding of your country’s historic and current policies on cryptocurrency. You need to be aware that there is a high chance of losing your money. If you are not comfortable with the risk, it’s better to stay away from it. There are many ways you can profit from cryptocurrency – buying coins, trading coins, mining coins, and so on.

Related Articles


Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *